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Demystifying Diagnosis and Treatment of Iron Deficiency in Heart Failure

  • Authors: Andrew P. Ambrosy, MD; Gregory D. Lewis, MD; Nosheen Reza, MD
  • CME / ABIM MOC Released: 10/30/2023
  • Valid for credit through: 10/30/2024, 11:59 PM EST
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  • Credits Available

    Physicians - maximum of 1.00 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)™

    ABIM Diplomates - maximum of 1.00 ABIM MOC points

    You Are Eligible For

    • Letter of Completion
    • ABIM MOC points

Target Audience and Goal Statement

This activity is intended for clinicians who care for patients with HF, including HF specialists, cardiologists, nurse practitioners (NPs)/physician assistants (PAs), primary care physicians (PCPs), hematology and oncology specialists, emergency medicine physicians, nephrologists, and other clinicians who care for patients with HF.

The goal of this activity is for learners to be better able to recognize the impact of iron deficiency (ID) on the quality of life (QoL) of patients with HF as well as other clinical consequences of ID in HF, understand diagnostic approaches to identify ID in people with HF, and identify evidence-based treatment approaches with iron replacement therapies. Learners will be able to apply guideline-directed evaluation and treatment and evidence-based individualized management practices to improve diagnosis of ID in patients with chronic HF.

Upon completion of this activity, participants will:

  • Have increased knowledge regarding the
    • Pathophysiology of ID in HF
    • Impact of ID on outcomes of patients with concomitant HF
    • Latest clinical safety and efficacy data for the use of intravenous (IV) iron to treat ID in HF
  • Have greater competence related to
    • Application of guideline-based screening strategies to optimize the early diagnosis of ID in patients with HF
    • Selection of evidence-based treatment strategies in patients with comorbid ID and HF, including the administration of IV iron based on the current evidence and guideline recommendations
  • Demonstrate greater confidence in their ability to
    • Recognize and manage ID in patients with chronic HF


Medscape, LLC requires every individual in a position to control educational content to disclose all financial relationships with ineligible companies that have occurred within the past 24 months. Ineligible companies are organizations whose primary business is producing, marketing, selling, re-selling, or distributing healthcare products used by or on patients.

All relevant financial relationships for anyone with the ability to control the content of this educational activity are listed below and have been mitigated. Others involved in the planning of this activity have no relevant financial relationships.


  • Andrew P. Ambrosy, MD

    Associate Program Director for Research (Fellowship)
    Department of Cardiology, The Permanente Medical Group
    San Francisco, California
    Assistant Medical Director, Clinical Trials Program
    Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Northern California
    Oakland, California


    Andrew P. Ambrosy, MD, has no relevant financial relationships.


  • Gregory D. Lewis, MD

    Section Head, Heart Failure
    Director, Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing Laboratory
    Medical Director, Cardiac Transplantation Program
    Mass General Heart Center
    Boston, Massachusetts


    Gregory D. Lewis, MD, has the following relevant financial relationships: 
    Consultant or advisor for: American Regent; Applied Therapeutics; Rivus
    Research funding from: Amgen Inc.
    Contracted researcher for: Cytokinetics; Novartis; NXT Pharma; Rivus

  • Nosheen Reza, MD

    Assistant Professor of Medicine
    Penn Center for Inherited Cardiovascular Disease
    Section of Advanced Heart Failure, Transplantation, and Mechanical Support
    Director, Penn Women in Cardiology Program
    Assistant Program Director, Cardiovascular Disease Fellowship Program
    Philadelphia, Pennsylvania


    Nosheen Reza, MD, has the following relevant financial relationships: 
    Consultant or advisor for: Roche (former); Zoll Medical Corporation (former)


  • George Boutsalis, PhD

    Senior Director, Content Development, Medscape, LLC


    George Boutsalis, PhD, has no relevant financial relationships.

Compliance Reviewer

  • Maria Morales, MSN, RN, CLNC

    Associate Director, Accreditation and Compliance, Medscape, LLC


    Maria Morales, MSN, RN, CLNC, has no relevant financial relationships.

Accreditation Statements

Presented through a collaboration between the Heart Failure Society of America and Medscape Education.


Interprofessional Continuing Education

In support of improving patient care, Medscape, LLC is jointly accredited with commendation by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME), the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE), and the American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC), to provide continuing education for the healthcare team.

    For Physicians

  • Medscape, LLC designates this enduring material for a maximum of 1.0 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)™ . Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.

    Successful completion of this CME activity, which includes participation in the evaluation component, enables the participant to earn up to 1.0 MOC points in the American Board of Internal Medicine's (ABIM) Maintenance of Certification (MOC) program. Participants will earn MOC points equivalent to the amount of CME credits claimed for the activity. It is the CME activity provider's responsibility to submit participant completion information to ACCME for the purpose of granting ABIM MOC credit. Aggregate participant data will be shared with commercial supporters of this activity.

    College of Family Physicians of Canada Mainpro+® participants may claim certified credits for any AMA PRA Category 1 credit(s)™, up to a maximum of 50 credits per five-year cycle. Any additional credits are eligible as non-certified credits. College of Family Physicians of Canada (CFPC) members must log into Mainpro+® to claim this activity.

    Through an agreement between the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education and the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada, medical practitioners participating in the Royal College MOC Program may record completion of accredited activities registered under the ACCME’s “CME in Support of MOC” program in Section 3 of the Royal College’s MOC Program.

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For questions regarding the content of this activity, contact the accredited provider for this CME/CE activity noted above. For technical assistance, contact [email protected]

Instructions for Participation and Credit

There are no fees for participating in or receiving credit for this online educational activity. For information on applicability and acceptance of continuing education credit for this activity, please consult your professional licensing board.

This activity is designed to be completed within the time designated on the title page; physicians should claim only those credits that reflect the time actually spent in the activity. To successfully earn credit, participants must complete the activity online during the valid credit period that is noted on the title page. To receive AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™, you must receive a minimum score of 70% on the post-test.

Follow these steps to earn CME/CE credit*:

  1. Read about the target audience, learning objectives, and author disclosures.
  2. Study the educational content online or print it out.
  3. Online, choose the best answer to each test question. To receive a certificate, you must receive a passing score as designated at the top of the test. We encourage you to complete the Activity Evaluation to provide feedback for future programming.

You may now view or print the certificate from your CME/CE Tracker. You may print the certificate, but you cannot alter it. Credits will be tallied in your CME/CE Tracker and archived for 6 years; at any point within this time period, you can print out the tally as well as the certificates from the CME/CE Tracker.

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Demystifying Diagnosis and Treatment of Iron Deficiency in Heart Failure

Authors: Andrew P. Ambrosy, MD; Gregory D. Lewis, MD; Nosheen Reza, MDFaculty and Disclosures

CME / ABIM MOC Released: 10/30/2023

Valid for credit through: 10/30/2024, 11:59 PM EST


Learning Feedback Questions

Please answer the questions below to self-assess your knowledge. Answering these questions again after the activity will allow you to see what you learned.

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