You are leaving Medscape Education
Cancel Continue
Log in to save activities Your saved activities will show here so that you can easily access them whenever you're ready. Log in here CME & Education Log in to keep track of your credits.



Are You an Alopecia Areata Expert?

  • Authors: Antonella Tosti, MD
  • CME / ABIM MOC / CE Released: 1/25/2023
  • Valid for credit through: 1/25/2024
Start Activity

  • Credits Available

    Physicians - maximum of 0.25 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)™

    ABIM Diplomates - maximum of 0.25 ABIM MOC points

    Nurses - 0.25 ANCC Contact Hour(s) (0.25 contact hours are in the area of pharmacology)

    You Are Eligible For

    • Letter of Completion
    • ABIM MOC points

Target Audience and Goal Statement

This activity is intended for dermatologists, primary care physicians, nurse practitioners, physician assistants, and other healthcare professionals involved in the care of patients with AA.

The goal of this activity is for learners to be better able to diagnose and treat patients with AA.

Upon completion of this activity, participants will:

  • Have increased knowledge regarding
    • Evidence-based treatment options for AA
  • Self-assess learning needs related to
    • Managing AA


Medscape, LLC requires every individual in a position to control educational content to disclose all financial relationships with ineligible companies that have occurred within the past 24 months. Ineligible companies are organizations whose primary business is producing, marketing, selling, re-selling, or distributing healthcare products used by or on patients.

All relevant financial relationships for anyone with the ability to control the content of this educational activity are listed below and have been mitigated. Others involved in the planning of this activity have no relevant financial relationships.


  • Antonella Tosti, MD

    Fredric Brandt Endowed Professor
    Dr Phillip Frost Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery
    University of Miami
    Miami, Florida


    Antonella Tosti, MD, has the following relevant financial relationships:
    Consultant or advisor for: Almirall; DS Laboratories; Eli Lilly and Company; MONAT GLOBAL; Myovant Sciences Ltd.; Pfizer Inc.; Thirty Madison


  • Briana Betz, PhD

    Medical Education Director, WebMD Global, LLC


    Briana Betz, PhD, has no relevant financial relationships.

Compliance Reviewer/Nurse Planner

  • Lisa Simani, APRN, MS, ACNP

    Associate Director, Accreditation and Compliance, Medscape, LLC


    Lisa Simani, APRN, MS, ACNP, has no relevant financial relationships.

Peer Reviewer

This activity has been peer reviewed and the reviewer has no relevant financial relationships.

Accreditation Statements

In support of improving patient care, Medscape, LLC is jointly accredited with commendation by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME), the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE), and the American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC), to provide continuing education for the healthcare team.

    For Physicians

  • Medscape, LLC designates this enduring material for a maximum of 0.25 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)™ . Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.

    Successful completion of this CME activity, which includes participation in the evaluation component, enables the participant to earn up to 0.25 MOC points in the American Board of Internal Medicine's (ABIM) Maintenance of Certification (MOC) program. Participants will earn MOC points equivalent to the amount of CME credits claimed for the activity. It is the CME activity provider's responsibility to submit participant completion information to ACCME for the purpose of granting ABIM MOC credit. Aggregate participant data will be shared with commercial supporters of this activity.

    Contact This Provider

    For Nurses

  • Awarded ​0.25​ contact hour(s) of nursing continuing professional development for RNs and APNs; ​0.25​ contact hours are in the area of pharmacology.  

    Contact This Provider

For questions regarding the content of this activity, contact the accredited provider for this CME/CE activity noted above. For technical assistance, contact [email protected]

Instructions for Participation and Credit

There are no fees for participating in or receiving credit for this online educational activity. For information on applicability and acceptance of continuing education credit for this activity, please consult your professional licensing board.

This activity is designed to be completed within the time designated on the title page; physicians should claim only those credits that reflect the time actually spent in the activity. To successfully earn credit, participants must complete the activity online during the valid credit period that is noted on the title page. To receive AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™, you must receive a minimum score of 70% on the post-test.

Follow these steps to earn CME/CE credit*:

  1. Read about the target audience, learning objectives, and author disclosures.
  2. Study the educational content online or print it out.
  3. Online, choose the best answer to each test question. To receive a certificate, you must receive a passing score as designated at the top of the test. We encourage you to complete the Activity Evaluation to provide feedback for future programming.

You may now view or print the certificate from your CME/CE Tracker. You may print the certificate, but you cannot alter it. Credits will be tallied in your CME/CE Tracker and archived for 6 years; at any point within this time period, you can print out the tally as well as the certificates from the CME/CE Tracker.

*The credit that you receive is based on your user profile.


Are You an Alopecia Areata Expert?

Authors: Antonella Tosti, MDFaculty and Disclosures

CME / ABIM MOC / CE Released: 1/25/2023

Valid for credit through: 1/25/2024



  1. Paus R, et al. Is alopecia areata an autoimmune-response against melanogenesis-related proteins, exposed by abnormal MHC class I expression in the anagen hair bulb? Yale J Biol Med. 1994;66:541-554.
  2. Todes-Taylor N, et al. T cell populations in alopecia areata. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1984;11:216-223.
  3. Olayinka JT, et al. Immunopathogenesis of alopecia areata. Curr Res Immunol. 2021;2:7-11.
  4. Xing L, et al. Alopecia areata is driven by cytotoxic T lymphocytes and is reversed by JAK inhibition. Nat Med. 2014;20:1043-1051.
  5. Suárez-Fariñas M, et al. Alopecia areata profiling shows TH1, TH2, and IL-23 cytokine activation without parallel TH17/TH22 skewing. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015;136:1277-1287.
  6. Dai Z, et al. CXCR3 blockade inhibits T cell migration into the skin and prevents development of alopecia areata. J Immunol. 2016;197:1089-1099.
  7. Gilhar A, et al. Alopecia areata induced in C3H/HeJ mice by interferon-gamma: evidence for loss of immune privilege. J Invest Dermatol. 2005;124:288-289.
  8. Freyschmidt-Paul P, et al. Interferon-gamma-deficient mice are resistant to the development of alopecia areata. Br J Dermatol. 2006;155:515-521.
  9. Pratt CH, et al. Alopecia areata. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2017;3:17011.
  10. Mostaghimi A, et al. All-cause health care resource utilization and costs among adults with alopecia areata: a retrospective claims database study in the United States. J Manag Care Spec Pharm. 2022;28:426-434.
  11. Egeberg A, et al. Comorbidities of alopecia areata: a population-based cohort study. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2021;46:651-656.
  12. Mohan GC, et al. Association of vitiligo and alopecia areata with atopic dermatitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Dermatol. 2015;151:522-528.
  13. Kageyama R, et al. Immunological properties of atopic dermatitis-associated alopecia areata. Int J Mol Sci. 2021;22:2618.
  14. Liu LY, et al. Alopecia areata is associated with impaired health-related quality of life: a survey of affected adults and children and their families. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2018;79:556-558.e1.
  15. van Dalen M, et al. Anxiety, depression, and quality of life in children and adults with alopecia areata: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Front Med (Lausanne). 2022;9:1054898.
  16. Mostaghimi A, et al. Patient perspectives of the social, emotional and functional impact of alopecia areata: a systematic literature review. Dermatol Ther (Heidelb). 2021;11:867-883.
  17. Burge R, et al. The patient-reported burden of alopecia areata by current severity: a real-world study in the United States. Presented at: The American Academy of Dermatology Virtual Meeting Experience (AAD VMX 2021); April 23-25, 2021; Virtual. Poster 26158.
  18. Liu LY, et al. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among patients with alopecia areata (AA): a systematic review. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2016;75:806-812.
  19. Rencz F, et al. Alopecia areata and health-related quality of life: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Dermatol. 2016;175:561-571.
  20. Titeca G, et al. The psychosocial burden of alopecia areata and androgenetica: a cross-sectional multicentre study among dermatological out-patients in 13 European countries. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2020;34:406-411.
  21. Qi S, et al. Assessing quality of life in Alopecia areata patients in China. Psychol Health Med. 2015;20:97-102.
  22. Wolf JJ, et al. Alopecia areata: factors that impact children and adolescents. J Adolesc Res. 2019;34:282-301.
  23. Sterkens A, et al. Alopecia areata: a review on diagnosis, immunological etiopathogenesis and treatment options. Clin Exp Med. 2021;21:215-230.
  24. Olsen EA, et al. Alopecia areata investigational assessment guidelines -- Part II. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2004;51:440-447.
  25. Ranawaka RR. An observational study of alopecia areata in Sri Lankan adult patients. Ceylon Med J. 2014;59:128-131.
  26. Roest YBM, et al. Nail involvement in alopecia areata: a questionnaire-based survey on clinical signs, impact on quality of life and review of the literature. Acta Derm Venereol. 2018;98:212-217.
  27. Chelidze K, et al. Nail changes in alopecia areata: an update and review. Int J Dermatol. 2018;57:776-783.
  28. Tosti A, et al. Prevalence of nail abnormalities in children with alopecia areata. Pediatr Dermatol. 1994;11:112-115.
  29. Cho HH, et al. Clinical characteristics and prognostic factors in early-onset alopecia totalis and alopecia universalis. J Korean Med Sci. 2012;27:799-802.
  30. Meah N, et al. The Alopecia Areata Consensus of Experts (ACE) study: results of an international expert opinion on treatments for alopecia areata. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2020;83:123-130.
  31. Olsen EA, et al. SALT II: a new take on the Severity of Alopecia Tool (SALT) for determining percentage scalp hair loss. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2016;75:1268-1270.
  32. Schoepe S, et al. Glucocorticoid therapy-induced skin atrophy. Exp Dermatol. 2006;15:406-420.
  33. Yasir M, et al. Corticosteroid adverse effects. In: StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing; 2022. Updated July 4, 2022. Accessed January 15, 2023.
  34. MacDonald Hull SP, et al. Guidelines for the management of alopecia areata. Br J Dermatol. 2003;149:692-699.
  35. Ghoreschi K, et al. Janus kinases in immune cell signaling. Immunol Rev. 2009;228:273-287.
  36. King B, et al; BRAVE-AA Investigators. Two phase 3 trials of baricitinib for alopecia areata. N Engl J Med. 2022;386:1687-1699.
  37. Baricitinib [prescribing information]. Approved 2018. Revised June 2022.
  38. Gilhar A, et al. JAK inhibitors and alopecia areata. Lancet. 2019;393:318-319.
  39. King B, et al. A phase 2a randomized, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the oral Janus kinase inhibitors ritlecitinib and brepocitinib in alopecia areata: 24-week results. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2021;85:379-387.
« Return to: Are You an Alopecia Areata Expert?
  • Print