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Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Breast Cancer Management and Outcomes: How Can Care Be Optimized?

  • Authors: Veronica B. Ajewole, PharmD, BCOP; Mandi L. Pratt-Chapman, PhD
  • CE Released: 10/31/2022
  • Valid for credit through: 10/31/2023, 11:59 PM EST
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Target Audience and Goal Statement

This activity is intended for oncology nurses and nurse practitioners.

To enhance the ability of oncology pharmacists, nurses/NPs who manage and/or interact with patients with breast cancer, to provide information, insights, and solutions, to identify, address, and rectify inequities in oncology healthcare delivery.

Upon completion of this activity, participants will:

  1. Analyze current evidence for biologic and genetic factors that influence breast cancer prevalence and outcomes, including triple-negative breast cancer
  2. Identify how screening and treatment guidelines for breast cancer, including triple-negative breast cancer, can be individualized to address the needs of patient groups, with the understanding that medical care is not "once size fits all"
  3. Apply improved breast cancer care practices by identifying and addressing multiple factors that affect those patient groups affected by inequalities and poor healthcare access


Disclosure of Unlabeled Use and Disclaimer:

The opinions expressed in the educational activity are those of the faculty and do not necessarily represent the views of Postgraduate Healthcare Education, LLC, Postgraduate Institute for Medicine, or Gilead Sciences, Inc. Participants have an implied responsibility to use the newly acquired information to enhance patient outcomes and their own professional development. The information presented in this activity is not meant to serve as a guideline for patient management. Any procedures, medications, or other courses of diagnosis or treatment discussed or suggested in this activity should not be used by clinicians without evaluation of their patients' conditions, and possible contraindications on dangers in use, (review of any applicable manufacturer's product information) and comparison with recommendations of other authorities.

The author, sponsor, and publisher of this continuing education activity have made all reasonable efforts to ensure that all information contained herein is accurate in accordance with the latest available scientific knowledge at the time of acceptance for publication. However, because information regarding drugs (their administration, dosages, contraindications, adverse reactions, interactions, special warnings, precautions, etc.) is subject to constant change, the reader is advised to check the manufacturer's package insert for information concerning recommended dosages and potential problems and cautions prior to dispensing or administering the drug. Special precautions should be taken when a drug is new, or highly toxic, or is unfamiliar to the dispenser or administrant. This educational activity may contain discussion of published and/or investigational uses of agents that are not approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Neither the publisher nor sponsor promotes the use of any agent outside of approved labeling. Statements made in this activity have not been evaluated by the FDA.

Disclosure of Conflicts of Interest

Postgraduate Institute for Medicine (PIM) requires instructors, planners, managers, and other individuals who are in a position to control the content of this activity to disclose any real or apparent conflict of interest (COI) they may have as related to the content of this activity. All identified COI are thoroughly vetted and resolved according to PIM policy. PIM is committed to providing its learners with high quality activities and related materials that promote improvements or quality in healthcare and not a specific proprietary business interest of a commercial interest.


  • Veronica B. Ajewole, PharmD, BCOP

    Associate Professor
    Department of Pharmacy Practice
    College of Pharmacy & Health Sciences
    Texas Southern University
    Adjunct Assistant Professor of Oncology
    Houston Methodist Academic Institute
    Houston Methodist Hospital
    Houston, Texas


    Dr Ajewole has no actual or potential conflict of interest in relation to this program 

  • Mandi L. Pratt-Chapman, PhD

    Associate Professor
    Department of Medicine
    The George Washington University
    School of Medicine and Health Sciences
    Washington, DC


    Dr Pratt-Chapman has no actual or potential conflict of interest in relation to this program

Additional Planners/Reviewers

The clinical reviewer, Lisa Hutchison, PharmD, has no actual or potential conflict of interest in relation to this program.

Susanne Batesko, RN, BSN, Robin Soboti, RPh, and Susan R. Grady, MSN, RN, as well as the planners, managers, and other individuals, not previously disclosed, who are in a position to control the content of Postgraduate Healthcare Education (PHE) continuing education (CE) activities hereby state that they have no relevant conflicts of interest and no financial relationships or relationships to products or devices during the past 12 months in relation to this activity. PHE is committed to providing participants with a quality learning experience and to improve clinical outcomes without promoting the financial interests of a proprietary business.

The PIM planners and managers have no potential conflict of interest in relation to this program.

Accreditation Statements

Interprofessional Continuing Education

In support of improving patient care, this activity has been planned and implemented by the Postgraduate Institute for Medicine and Postgraduate Healthcare Education. Postgraduate Institute for Medicine is jointly accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME), the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE), and the American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC), to provide continuing education for the healthcare team.

    For Nurses

  • The maximum number of hours awarded for this Continuing Nursing Education activity is 1.0 contact hours. Designated for 0.25 contact hours of pharmacotherapy credit for Advanced Practice Registered Nurses


    Published: October 31, 202
    Expires: October 31, 2023
    Type of Activity: Application
    Fee Information: There is no fee for this educational activity.
    Estimated time to complete activity: 60 minutes

    Contact This Provider

For questions regarding the content of this activity, contact the accredited provider for this CME/CE activity noted above. For technical assistance, contact [email protected]

Instructions for Participation and Credit

There are no fees for participating in or receiving credit for this online educational activity. For information on applicability and acceptance of continuing education credit for this activity, please consult your professional licensing board.

This activity is designed to be completed within the time designated on the title page; physicians should claim only those credits that reflect the time actually spent in the activity. To successfully earn credit, participants must complete the activity online during the valid credit period that is noted on the title page. To receive ANCC Contact Hour(s), you must receive a minimum score of 70% on the post-test.

Follow these steps to earn CME/CE credit*:

  1. Read about the target audience, learning objectives, and author disclosures.
  2. Study the educational content online or print it out.
  3. Online, choose the best answer to each test question. To receive a certificate, you must receive a passing score as designated at the top of the test. We encourage you to complete the Activity Evaluation to provide feedback for future programming.

You may now view or print the certificate from your CME/CE Tracker. You may print the certificate, but you cannot alter it. Credits will be tallied in your CME/CE Tracker and archived for 6 years; at any point within this time period, you can print out the tally as well as the certificates from the CME/CE Tracker.

*The credit that you receive is based on your user profile.


Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Breast Cancer Management and Outcomes: How Can Care Be Optimized?

Authors: Veronica B. Ajewole, PharmD, BCOP; Mandi L. Pratt-Chapman, PhDFaculty and Disclosures

CE Released: 10/31/2022

Valid for credit through: 10/31/2023, 11:59 PM EST


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