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Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis in Primary Care - Answers From the Experts 

  • Authors: Samantha V. Hill, MD, MPH
  • CME / ABIM MOC / CE Released: 9/16/2022
  • Valid for credit through: 9/16/2023
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  • Credits Available

    Physicians - maximum of 0.25 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)™

    ABIM Diplomates - maximum of 0.25 ABIM MOC points

    Nurses - 0.25 ANCC Contact Hour(s) (0.25 contact hours are in the area of pharmacology)

    Pharmacists - 0.25 Knowledge-based ACPE (0.025 CEUs)

    Physician Assistant - 0.25 AAPA hour(s) of Category I credit

    You Are Eligible For

    • Letter of Completion
    • ABIM MOC points

Target Audience and Goal Statement

This activity is intended for primary care physicians, infectious disease specialists, nurses, and pharmacists.

The goal of this activity is that learners will be better able to identify, communicate with, and treat patients who may benefit from PrEP to prevent HIV infection.

Upon completion of this activity, participants will:

  • Have increased knowledge of
    • Disparities in PrEP implementation, particularly with regard to gender, race, and geographic location
  • Have greater competence in
    • Taking an accurate sexual history to identify patients who might benefit from HIV PrEP
  • Have greater confidence in
    • Overcoming barriers to access for HIV PrEP


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All relevant financial relationships for anyone with the ability to control the content of this educational activity are listed below and have been mitigated. Others involved in the planning of this activity have no relevant financial relationships.


  • Samantha V. Hill, MD, MPH

    Assistant Professor
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Adolescent Medicine
    Director of Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion for Graduate Medical Education
    University of Alabama at Birmingham
    Birmingham, Alabama


    Samantha V. Hill, MD, MPH, has no relevant financial relationships.


  • Ashley Stumvoll, MRes

    Associate Medical Writer, Medscape, LLC


    Ashley Stumvoll, MRes, has no relevant financial relationships.

  • Maria Uravich, BSc, ELS

    Senior Medical Education Director, Medscape, LLC


    Maria Uravich, BSc, ELS, has no relevant financial relationships.

Compliance Reviewer/Nurse Planner

  • Leigh Schmidt, MSN, RN, CNE, CHCP

    Associate Director, Accreditation and Compliance, Medscape, LLC


    Leigh Schmidt, MSN, RN, CNE, CHCP, has no relevant financial relationships.

Peer Reviewer

This activity has been peer reviewed and the reviewer has no relevant financial relationships.

Accreditation Statements

In support of improving patient care, Medscape, LLC is jointly accredited with commendation by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME), the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE), and the American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC), to provide continuing education for the healthcare team.

    For Physicians

  • Medscape, LLC designates this enduring material for a maximum of 0.25 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)™ . Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.

    Successful completion of this CME activity, which includes participation in the evaluation component, enables the participant to earn up to 0.25 MOC points in the American Board of Internal Medicine's (ABIM) Maintenance of Certification (MOC) program. Participants will earn MOC points equivalent to the amount of CME credits claimed for the activity. It is the CME activity provider's responsibility to submit participant completion information to ACCME for the purpose of granting ABIM MOC credit. Aggregate participant data will be shared with commercial supporters of this activity.

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    For Nurses

  • Awarded 0.25 contact hour(s) of nursing continuing professional development for RNs and APNs; 0.25 contact hours are in the area of pharmacology.

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    For Pharmacists

  • Medscape designates this continuing education activity for 0.25 contact hour(s) (0.025 CEUs) (Universal Activity Number: JA0007105-0000-22-258-H02-P).

    Contact This Provider

  • For Physician Assistants

    Medscape, LLC has been authorized by the American Academy of PAs (AAPA) to award AAPA Category 1 CME credit for activities planned in accordance with AAPA CME Criteria. This activity is designated for 0.25 AAPA Category 1 CME credits. Approval is valid until 9/16/2023. PAs should only claim credit commensurate with the extent of their participation.

For questions regarding the content of this activity, contact the accredited provider for this CME/CE activity noted above. For technical assistance, contact [email protected]

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There are no fees for participating in or receiving credit for this online educational activity. For information on applicability and acceptance of continuing education credit for this activity, please consult your professional licensing board.

This activity is designed to be completed within the time designated on the title page; physicians should claim only those credits that reflect the time actually spent in the activity. To successfully earn credit, participants must complete the activity online during the valid credit period that is noted on the title page. To receive AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™, you must receive a minimum score of 75% on the post-test.

Follow these steps to earn CME/CE credit*:

  1. Read the target audience, learning objectives, and author disclosures.
  2. Study the educational content online or printed out.
  3. Online, choose the best answer to each test question. To receive a certificate, you must receive a passing score as designated at the top of the test. We encourage you to complete the Activity Evaluation to provide feedback for future programming.

You may now view or print the certificate from your CME/CE Tracker. You may print the certificate but you cannot alter it. Credits will be tallied in your CME/CE Tracker and archived for 6 years; at any point within this time period you can print out the tally as well as the certificates from the CME/CE Tracker.

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Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis in Primary Care - Answers From the Experts 

Authors: Samantha V. Hill, MD, MPHFaculty and Disclosures

CME / ABIM MOC / CE Released: 9/16/2022

Valid for credit through: 9/16/2023



  1. Petroll AE, et al. PrEP Awareness, familiarity, comfort, and prescribing experience among US primary care providers and HIV specialists. Aids Behav. 2017;21:1256-1267.
  2. Gilmore HJ et al. Participant Experiences and facilitators and barriers to pill use among men who have sex with men in the iPrEx pre-exposure prophylaxis trial in San Francisco. Aids Patient Care St. 2013;27:560-566.
  3. Lee K et al. Factors Associated with use of HIV prevention and health care among transgender women — seven urban areas, 2019–2020. Morbidity Mortal Wkly Rep. 2022; 71:673-679.
  4. Fonner VA et al. Effectiveness and safety of oral HIV preexposure prophylaxis for all populations. Aids Lond Engl. 2016; 30:1973-1983.
  5. Skolnik AA et al. Roadblocks to PrEP: what medical records reveal about access to HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis. J Gen Intern Med. 2020; 35:832-838.
  6. Auerbach JD et al. Beyond "getting drugs into bodies: social science perspectives on pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV. Journal of the International AIDS Society. 2015;18 (4S3).
  7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV Surveillance Report, 2020; vol. 33. Published May 2022. Accessed June 2022.
  8. World Health Organization. Consolidated HIV strategic information guidelines driving impact through programme monitoring and management. Published online 2020. Accessed 2022.
  9. Fields EL, et al. Young black MSM’s exposures to and discussions about PrEP while navigating geosocial networking apps. J Lgbt Youth. 2019;18:1-17.
  10. Ogunbajo A et al. Multilevel barriers to HIV PrEP uptake and adherence among Black and Hispanic/Latinx transgender women in Southern California. Aids Behav. 2021;25:2301-2315.
  11. Krakower D et al. HIV providers’ perceived barriers and facilitators to implementing pre-exposure prophylaxis in care settings: a qualitative study. Aids Behav. 2014;18:1712-1721.
  12. Lumsden J et al. Improving access to pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prescribing in a primary care setting. Bmj Open Qual. 2022; 11:e001749.
  13. Elopre L et al. PrEP service delivery preferences of black Cis-gender women living in the Southern United States. Aids Behav. 2022. doi:10.1007/s10461-022-03691-9 [Epub ahead of print].
  14. Centers for Disease Control. A guide to taking a sexual history. Published online 2022. Accessed September 7, 2022.
  15. Teitelman AM et al. Beliefs associated with intention to use PrEP among cisgender U.S. women at elevated HIV risk. Arch Sex Behav. 2020; 49:2213-2221.
  16. Halkitis PN et al. A Holistic Approach to addressing HIV infection disparities in gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men. Am Psychol. 2013; 68:261-273.
  17. Dennermalm N et al. Sex, drugs and techno – a qualitative study on finding the balance between risk, safety and pleasure among men who have sex with men engaging in recreational and sexualised drug use. BMC Public Health. 2021; 21:863.
  18. Abbey A et al. The effects of acute alcohol consumption, cognitive reserve, partner risk, and gender on sexual decision making. J Stud Alcohol. 2006; 67: 113–121.
  19. Conniff J et al. Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention: the primary care perspective. J Am Board Fam Medicine. 2016; 29:143-151.
  20. Calabrese SK et al. A closer look at racism and heterosexism in medical students’ clinical decision-making related to HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP): implications for PrEP education. Aids Behav. 2018; 22:1122-1138.
  21. Kimball D et al. Medical mistrust and the PrEP cascade among Latino sexual minority men. Aids Behav. 2020;24:3456-3461.
  22. Cahill S et al. Stigma, medical mistrust, and perceived racism may affect PrEP awareness and uptake in black compared to white gay and bisexual men in Jackson, Mississippi and Boston, Massachusetts. Aids Care. 2017;29:1-8.
  23. Tekeste M et al. Differences in medical mistrust between Black and White Women: implications for patient–provider communication about PrEP. Aids Behav. 2019;23:1737-1748.
  24. Committee in Adolescence et al. Standards for health information technology to ensure adolescent privacy. Pediatrics. 2012;130:987-990.
  25. Etowa J et al. Community perspectives on addressing and responding to HIV-testing, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) among African, Caribbean and Black (ACB) people in Ontario, Canada. BMC Public Health. 2022;22:913.
  26. Stornholm ED et al. Primary care providers’ knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP): informing network-based interventions. Aids Educ Prev. 2021;33:325-344.
  27. Allan-Blitz LT et al. The ongoing HIV epidemic in American youth: challenges and opportunities. Mhealth. 2021;7:33.
  28. Zanoni BC et al. The adolescent and young adult HIV cascade of care in the united states: exaggerated health disparities. Aids Patient Care St. 2014; 28:128-135.
  29. Henkhaus ME, Hussen SA, Brown DN, et al. Barriers and facilitators to use of a mobile HIV care model to re-engage and retain out-of-care people living with HIV in Atlanta, Georgia. PLoS ONE. 2021;16(3):e0247328.
  30. Parsons JT et al. Familiarity with and preferences for oral and long-acting injectable HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in a national sample of gay and bisexual men in the U.S. Aids Behav. 2016; 20:1390-1399.
  31. Irie WC et al. Preferences for HIV Preexposure Prophylaxis Products Among Black Women in the U.S. Aids Behav. 2022;26:2212-2223.
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