You are leaving Medscape Education
Cancel Continue
Log in to save activities Your saved activities will show here so that you can easily access them whenever you're ready. Log in here CME & Education Log in to keep track of your credits.
 

Box 1.  

Causes of Gynecomastia.

Box 2.  

Common Drugs Associated With Gynecomastia.

CME

Gynecomastia: Incidence, Causes, and Treatment

  • Authors: Fnu Deepinder, MD; Glenn D. Braunstein, MD
  • CME Released: 9/6/2011
  • THIS ACTIVITY HAS EXPIRED FOR CREDIT
  • Valid for credit through: 9/6/2012, 11:59 PM EST
Start Activity


Target Audience and Goal Statement

This activity is intended for primary care physicians, endocrinologists, and other physicians who care for individuals with gynecomastia.

The goal of this activity is to evaluate the diagnosis and management of gynecomastia.

Upon completion of this activity, participants will be able to:

  1. Distinguish when gynecomastia is usually diagnosed during the lifespan of males
  2. Diagnose gynecomastia and its causes effectively
  3. Evaluate treatment options for gynecomastia
  4. Assess means to prevent gynecomastia


Disclosures

As an organization accredited by the ACCME, Medscape, LLC, requires everyone who is in a position to control the content of an education activity to disclose all relevant financial relationships with any commercial interest. The ACCME defines "relevant financial relationships" as financial relationships in any amount, occurring within the past 12 months, including financial relationships of a spouse or life partner, that could create a conflict of interest.

Medscape, LLC, encourages Authors to identify investigational products or off-label uses of products regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration, at first mention and where appropriate in the content.


Author(s)

  • Fnu Deepinder, MD

    Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California

    Disclosures

    Disclosure: Fnu Deepinder, MD, has disclosed no relevant financial relationships.

  • Glenn D. Braunstein, MD

    Chairman, Department of Medicine, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California

    Disclosures

    Disclosure: Glenn D. Braunstein, MD, has disclosed no relevant financial relationships.

Editor(s)

  • Elisa Manzotti

    Editorial Director, Future Science Group, London, United Kingdom

    Disclosures

    Disclosure: Elisa Manzotti has disclosed no relevant financial relationships.

CME Author(s)

  • Charles P. Vega, MD

    Associate Professor; Residency Director, Department of Family Medicine, University of California, Irvine

    Disclosures

    Disclosure: Charles P. Vega, MD, has disclosed no relevant financial relationships.

CME Reviewer(s)

  • Nafeez Zawahir, MD

    CME Clinical Director, Medscape, LLC

    Disclosures

    Disclosure: Nafeez Zawahir, MD, has disclosed no relevant financial relationships.

  • Sarah Fleischman

    CME Program Manager, Medscape, LLC

    Disclosures

    Disclosure: Sarah Fleischman has disclosed no relevant financial relationships.


Accreditation Statements

    For Physicians

  • This activity has been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education through the joint sponsorship of Medscape, LLC and Expert Reviews Ltd. Medscape, LLC is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.

    Medscape, LLC designates this Journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1.00 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)™ . Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.

    Medscape, LLC staff have disclosed that they have no relevant financial relationships.

    Contact This Provider

For questions regarding the content of this activity, contact the accredited provider for this CME/CE activity noted above. For technical assistance, contact [email protected]


Instructions for Participation and Credit

There are no fees for participating in or receiving credit for this online educational activity. For information on applicability and acceptance of continuing education credit for this activity, please consult your professional licensing board.

This activity is designed to be completed within the time designated on the title page; physicians should claim only those credits that reflect the time actually spent in the activity. To successfully earn credit, participants must complete the activity online during the valid credit period that is noted on the title page. To receive AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™, you must receive a minimum score of 70% on the post-test.

Follow these steps to earn CME/CE credit*:

  1. Read the target audience, learning objectives, and author disclosures.
  2. Study the educational content online or printed out.
  3. Online, choose the best answer to each test question. To receive a certificate, you must receive a passing score as designated at the top of the test. Medscape Education encourages you to complete the Activity Evaluation to provide feedback for future programming.

You may now view or print the certificate from your CME/CE Tracker. You may print the certificate but you cannot alter it. Credits will be tallied in your CME/CE Tracker and archived for 6 years; at any point within this time period you can print out the tally as well as the certificates by accessing "Edit Your Profile" at the top of your Medscape homepage.

*The credit that you receive is based on your user profile.

CME

Gynecomastia: Incidence, Causes, and Treatment: Incidence & Prevalence

processing....

Incidence & Prevalence

Gynecomastia is defined as a benign proliferation of glandular tissue of the breast in males, resulting in a concentric enlargement of one or both breasts. It is frequent during three phases in the age distribution curve: the neonatal period, pubertal period and senescence.[1] The prevalence of asymptomatic gynecomastia in neonates is estimated to be between 60 and 90%.[2] The second physiological peak of occurrence is at puberty between the ages of 10 and 16 years. Approximately 50–60% of adolescents have been estimated to have gynecomastia based upon early literature.[3–5] However, a recently published large population-based cross-sectional study involving 6200 males 1–19 years of age has demonstrated the prevalence of gynecomastia to be approximately 4% in the age group of 10–19 years.[6] Variation in reported prevalence across the studies could be attributed to differences in the size of palpable breast tissue used to define gynecomastia, sample size and selection, and ethnic and regional differences. Gynecomastia is believed to be a mid-puberty event as it is more frequent in boys with pubic hair Tanner stage three and four.[6] There have been a number of conflicting study reports in the literature regarding the association of BMI with gynecomastia. While several investigators demonstrated that boys with gynecomastia are heavier,[3–5] others have found that boys with pubertal gynecomastia are shorter, leaner and have a lower BMI.[6,7] The last peak in incidence of gynecomastia is seen in men 50–85 years of age, and the reported prevalence is up to 70%. The frequency of bilateral gynecomastia is more common than unilateral gynecomastia.[8,9] The reported prevalence of unilateral gynecomastia is approximately 35–45%.[6,7]