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Table 1.  

Presenter Lecture Title
Craig L Jensen, MD Impact of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Pregnancy Outcomes
Susan E. Carlson, MD Omega-3 Fatty Acids Improve Cognition and Visual Development in Infancy
Linda M. Arterburn, PhD Human Distribution of DHA and EPA
Jan Breslow, MD Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease
Joseph Hibbeln, MD Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Mental Health
Ernst Schaefer, MD Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Dementia
Yvon Carpentier, MD Omega-3 Fatty Acids and the Metabolic Syndrome
Philip Calder, PhD Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Inflammation: Impact on Heart Disease, Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Asthma
Richard J. Deckelbaum, MD Nutrient/Gene Interactions: Where in the Cell are Omega-3 Fatty Acids Acting?
Penny Kris Etherton, PhD How Much Omega-3 are Enough, and from Whence Should They Come?

Presentations at the Omega-3 Fatty Acids: Recommendations for Therapeutics and Prevention Symposium

Table 2.  

Organization, year Recommendation
AHA, 2002 No CVD: should eat oily fish twice/week and foods rich in LNA (walnuts, canola, soy, and flaxseed)
Documented CVD: should eat ~1 g EPA and DHA/day preferably from oily fish, but also in supplement form
For triglyceride lowering effects:- 2-4 g of n-3 fatty acids per day as a supplement under a physician's care[73]
AMDR, 2002 Recommends AI for n-3 fatty acids as 0.6%-1.2% energy, 133-267 mg/day for CVD prevention[74]
ISSFAL, 2004 Recommends adequate LA intake of 2% energy, healthy LNA as 0.7 % energy, and for cardiovascular health a minimum of 500 mg EPA and DHA per day[75]
NCEP, 2002 Recommends eating fish more often[52]
NIH supported expert panel, 1999 300 mg DHA per day for pregnant or lactating females[14]
WHO, 2003 Recommends 1-2 servings of fish per week each containing 200-500 mg EPA and DHA[76]
USDA Dietary Guidelines, 2005 Recommends 8 oz. per week (2 servings) of fish high in EPA and DHA content to decrease risk of CVD

Recommendations From Various Organizations and Expert Panels

Symposium Highlights -- Omega-3 Fatty Acids: Recommendations for Therapeutics and Prevention: Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Dementia


Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Dementia

Ernst Schaefer, MD

Epidemiologic data indicate that in addition to age, there are at least 3 significant risk factors for dementia and Alzheimer's disease: apoE4 genotype, elevated plasma homocystine levels, and decreased plasma DHA. ApoE4 interacts with brain proteins to predispose people to dementia. Data from the Longitudinal Framingham Study suggest that ApoE4 carriers had approximately a 2.5-fold increased risk of dementia.[46] Homocystine appears to be a direct vascular toxin. Those with increased homocystine levels in plasma were found to have a 1.9-fold increase in dementia.[47] Approximately 40% of fatty acid phospholipids in the brain are DHA. Individuals with dementia have lower plasma phospholipid DHA levels in the brain compared to controls.[48,49] Prospective studies have reported consumption of at least 1 fish serving per week decreases risk of Alzheimer's disease by 60%.[43] Preliminary data suggest that after adjustment for age, gender, apoE genotype, and homocystine levels, the top quartile of plasma DHA of approximately 2.7 or more servings of fish/week or 180 mg or more DHA/day is associated with 50% decreased risk of dementia.[50]

Schaefer concluded that 3 or more fish servings per week or at least 1 fish oil capsule per day (greater than 180 mg DHA/day) to raise DHA levels and supplementing or consuming adequate amounts of vitamins B6, B12, and folate (to decrease homocystine levels) could decrease the incidence of dementia.

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