You are leaving Medscape Education
Cancel Continue
Log in to save activities Your saved activities will show here so that you can easily access them whenever you're ready. Log in here CME & Education Log in to keep track of your credits.


Selective Costimulation Modulators: Addressing Unmet Needs in Rheumatoid Arthritis Management: Summary of Clinical Data With TNF-alpha Inhibitors


Summary of Clinical Data With TNF-alpha Inhibitors

The currently available biological DMARDs work by targeting downstream inflammatory cytokines, which are produced by a number of immune cells in response to stimulation by CD4+ T cells. Several large, randomized, controlled trials demonstrate that these agents have resulted in significant progress toward the alleviation of symptoms, the slowing of disease progression, and the restoration of function in many patients with RA. Evidence continues to suggest the long-term utility of these agents in both early and longstanding disease, particularly when used in combination with background DMARDs, such as MTX. They are not effective or well tolerated in all patients. Treatment strategies that target earlier steps in the inflammatory cascade may provide valuable alternatives to these therapies.