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CME

DASH Diet Improves Insulin Sensitivity as Well as Hypertension

  • Authors: News Author: Laurie Barclay, MD
    CME Author: Désirée Lie, MD, MSEd
  • CME Released: 2/6/2004; Reviewed and Renewed: 2/6/2005
  • THIS ACTIVITY HAS EXPIRED
  • Valid for credit through: 2/4/2006
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Target Audience and Goal Statement

This article is intended for primary care physicians, cardiologists, and other specialists who care for hypertensive patients.

The goal of this activity is to provide the latest medical news to physicians and other healthcare professionals in order to enhance patient care.

Upon completion of this activity, participants will be able to:

  • Describe the benefits of the DASH diet when added to a hypocaloric regimen in hypertensive patients.
  • List key components of the DASH diet.


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Author(s)

  • Laurie Barclay, MD

    Laurie Barclay is a freelance reviewer and writer for Medscape.

    Disclosures

    Disclosure: Dr. Barclay has reported no significant financial interests.

Reviewer(s)

  • Gary Vogin, MD

    Senior Medical Editor, Medscape

    Disclosures

    Disclosure: Dr. Vogin has reported no significant financial interests.

CME Authors

  • Désirée Lie, MD, MSEd

    Clinical Professor, Family Medicine, University of California, Orange; Director, Division of Faculty Development, UCI Medical Center, Orange, California

    Disclosures

    Disclosure: Dr. Lie has reported no significant financial interests.

  • Désirée Lie,MD,MSEd

    Clinical Professor, Family Medicine, University of California, Orange; Director, Division of Faculty Development, UCI Medical Center, Orange, California

    Disclosures

    Disclosure: Dr. Lie has reported no significant financial interests.


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CME

DASH Diet Improves Insulin Sensitivity as Well as Hypertension

Authors: News Author: Laurie Barclay, MD CME Author: Désirée Lie, MD, MSEdFaculty and Disclosures
THIS ACTIVITY HAS EXPIRED

CME Released: 2/6/2004; Reviewed and Renewed: 2/6/2005

Valid for credit through: 2/4/2006

processing....

This activity was originally released on February 6, 2004. It was reviewed and renewed in its original form on February 4, 2005.

Feb. 6, 2004 — The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet not only benefits hypertension but also improves insulin sensitivity, according to the results of a study published in the February issue of Diabetes Care.

"As the DASH dietary pattern is implemented as a routine part of nonpharmacologic management of hypertension, it will be important to know the effects on insulin action of a comprehensive behavioral program that includes the DASH dietary pattern," write Jamy D. Ard, MD, from Duke University Medical Center in Durham, North Carolina, and colleagues. "If the addition of the DASH dietary pattern adds to a lifestyle intervention (i.e., weight loss, moderate sodium reduction, and increased physical activity) by increasing insulin sensitivity, such a finding would provide added evidence for the need to recommend the DASH dietary pattern as part of a comprehensive lifestyle intervention for treatment of hypertension and overall cardiovascular risk reduction."

In this ancillary study of PREMIER, 52 subjects were randomized to one of three nonpharmacologic interventions for hypertension. Group A received advice only; the group B intervention included weight loss, reduced sodium intake, increased physical activity, and moderate alcohol intake; and group C received all interventions of group B as well as the DASH dietary pattern. This diet is high in fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy products but lower in total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol. It is replete with nutrients associated with improved insulin sensitivity, including magnesium, calcium, and protein.

Groups B and C had similar decreases in total calories, percentage of calories from fat, and sodium intake, and similar amounts of energy expenditure and weight loss. As expected from the DASH diet, group C had increased intake of protein, potassium, calcium, and magnesium. Compared with the other groups, group C had a significant improvement in insulin sensitivity, from 1.96 to 2.95 (P = .047). Although group B also had a significant decrease in fasting insulin and glucose levels, the changes in insulin sensitivity were not statistically different from those in control subjects.

Study limitations include insufficient power to determine the importance of the change in insulin sensitivity in group B, and the use of two nonconsecutive dietary recalls to estimate nutrient intake.

"Based on the results of this study, including the DASH dietary pattern as a basic part of a hypocaloric dietary plan can lead to significant improvements of up to 50% in insulin sensitivity," the authors write. "This combination of foods and nutrients may have an effect on a variety of different cellular targets that ultimately promotes changes in body composition during weight loss, resulting in a favorable impact on insulin action."

Diabetes Care. 2004;27:340-347

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