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Menopause Management for the Millennium

Authors: Author: Rogerio A. Lobo, MDFaculty and Disclosures



In the year 2000, an estimated 31.2 million women will be undergoing the menopausal transition. Although menopause is a normal developmental process, the resulting decline in endogenous estrogen levels can have serious clinical sequelae. Estrogen deficiency has been implicated in an increased risk for vasomotor symptoms, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, urogenital atrophy, cognitive decline, and Alzheimer's disease. This clinical management module provides an overview of the physiology of menopause, considers women's perceptions of menopause, and presents a detailed review of available and coming therapeutic options for the management of menopausal symptoms and the long-term effects of estrogen deficiency. A critical and individualized approach to menopause management is emphasized, because no intervention is suitable for every woman, and each option has a different risk/benefit profile.