Osteoporosis is a common and significant problem. Osteoporosis is characterized by decreased bone mass and quality. Causes of osteoporosis may be hereditary and/or environmental. Osteoporosis symptoms usually go unnoticed until development of skeletal fracture. Osteoporosis treatment includes medications, exercises, and possibly surgery. Osteoporosis drugs include bisphosphonates, selective estrogen receptor modulators, and calcitonin. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation and weight-bearing exercise are the mainstays of osteoporosis prevention.