Brain cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death among children. Most primary brain tumors are gliomas (originate from glia) and can be classified as astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, ependymomas, or as a mixed glioma such as oligoastrocytoma. Treatment of gliomas depends on the location and grade of the tumor; a combined approach including surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy is often used. Patients with the most aggressive form of malignant glioma, glioblastoma multiforme, generally survive for only a few months after diagnosis. Various therapies, including targeted agents and modalities that penetrate the blood brain barrier, are currently being investigated as treatments for brain cancer, posing a challenge to healthcare practitioners who must remain up to date on the latest clinical data.