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Taking Action in Heart Failure: The Universal Language of Success

  1. Which of the following measurements is used to classify or characterize heart failure (HF) type?
    B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP)
    Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF)
    N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP)
    QRS duration
  2. According to European, US, and Canadian guidelines, which of the following agents(s) are considered part of the foundational drug classes for HFrEF treatment?
    Angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI)
    ARNI and beta-blocker (BB)
    ARNI, BB, and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA)
    ARNI, BB, MRA, and sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor (SGLT2i)
  3. Cristina is a 63-year old woman with HFrEF, coronary artery disease, hypertension, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, obesity, and depression. She is currently taking simvastatin 20 mg once daily for her dyslipidemia. Her low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) is 133 mg/dL (3.44 mmol/L) (goal < 55 mg/dL [< 1.4 mmol/L]).
    According to current guidelines, which of the following adjustments should be made first to help Cristina meet her LDL-C goal?
    Switch simvastatin to high-intensity statin
    Add ezetimibe
    Add proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitor therapy
    Add small-interfering RNA (siRNA) therapy